Discussion Papers

A mediation analysis of household background on the children’s academic achievements

DP Number DP2022-007
Language 日本語のみ
Date March, 2023
Author Ryosuke Nakamura, Hiroki Tanaka, Takayuki Kaneda
JEL Classification codes I21
Keywords mediation analysis; shadow education; indirect effects of SES on children’s achievements
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We estimate the indirect effects of income and parental educational background on children’s achievement through shadow education.

We find that the effect of income on children’s achievements is mediated by the expenditure of shadow education.

The proportions of indirect effect of income to total effect are about 6.8% on math scores and 9.4% on language scores.